Introduction to Maintenance management
Maintenance management is a systematic and orderly technique for planning, coordinating, monitoring, and assessing maintenance operations and expenditures. A strong maintenance management system combined with trained and skilled maintenance employees may help to reduce health and safety issues as well as environmental harm; it can also result in longer asset life with fewer breakdowns, cheaper operating costs, and a greater quality of life.
This blog includes broad information and recommendations for building Maintenance Management Systems in First Nations communities. It outlines a system structure from inventory collection through the creation of a community maintenance budget for asset maintenance planning and monitoring. Maintenance Management Systems may have different forms and processes depending on the application and design (e.g., different formats of work orders, reports, and computer displays, etc.), but the essential concepts of all of these systems are the same as the one given in this blog.
Types of Maintenance
The term “operation” is frequently associated with “maintenance.” The execution of work or services, as well as the provision of materials and energy, to assure the day-to-day correct functioning of an asset, such as the work activities, related chemicals, and power required to run a water treatment plant, is referred to as an operation.
As a result, it has a direct but straightforward effect on the cost of running an asset.
Maintenance is the work done on an asset, such as a road, a building, a utility, or a piece of equipment, to keep it in as close to its original state as possible and to extend its usual life expectancy.
- Preventive Maintenance:- Mechanical or other equipment must be adjusted, lubricated, and inspected on a regular basis to ensure that it remains in good operating order.
- Routine:- Ongoing maintenance operations such as cleaning restrooms, grading roads, and mowing lawns are necessary due to the facilities’ continued use.
- Emergency:- Unexpected asset or equipment failures. These are more difficult to arrange than the previous two kinds of maintenance because they are unexpected or reactive.
- significant projects, such as floor replacement, re-roofing, or whole repainting, that are completed every few years.
Repair is the process of restoring an asset by replacing a broken or damaged portion or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable operating state. Normal wear and tear, vandalism, abuse, and poor maintenance can all lead to the need for repairs.
Preparing a Maintenance Plan
The structure and processes for creating a maintenance plan might vary depending on the application and architecture of a maintenance system. The following are the major phases in developing a standard maintenance plan:
- Prepare an asset inventory:- Defining the physical characteristics (e.g., area, material, etc.) of all assets that require upkeep (e.g., schools, roads, etc.).
- Identify maintenance activity and tasks:- Defining the kind of maintenance task (activity) to be performed on each asset and the work that to be completed under each activity.
- Identify the frequency of the task:- Determining how frequently actions should be conducted (frequency of service); this is especially essential in preventative maintenance. Emergency or reactive repairs are unexpected, but with proper preventative maintenance, the frequency of such events arising may be decreased.
- Estimate the time required to complete the task:- Showing how long it should take to accomplish each job;
- Develop an annual work schedule:- Deciding when the maintenance work should be done throughout the full year.
- Prepare and issue a work order:- Determining what, when, where, and by whom maintenance work will be performed.
- Determine a Budget:- Computing labor hours, material, equipment, and contracting prices to determine the costs of all maintenance tasks.
The inventory is a list of the physical characteristics (area, material, etc.) of capital assets that need to be maintained. The sorts of data that must be preserved vary depending on the maintenance activity and the task at hand.
Task Statement / Frequency / Task Times
A task statement is a thorough list of generic maintenance activities that must be completed for a specific kind of asset while doing preventive or regular maintenance. The frequency with which maintenance activities are completed, for example, daily, weekly, or every five years, is referred to as frequency.
Task timings show how long it will take to do a particular amount of work. Each task statement refers to a certain sort of asset maintenance work. A component of an asset, such as a boiler in a building, may require weekly, monthly, quarterly, and yearly maintenance checks. Similarly, a road could contain a single job statement, such as grading, that is repeated several times during the year.
To develop a set of activities for a specific asset, study the physical features of the asset and/or the manufacturer’s operation and maintenance manual to identify the maintenance tasks, task times, and frequencies necessary. For emergency or reactive work orders, maintenance tasks and projected task times must be determined depending on the nature of the problem.
The work schedule details all of the maintenance tasks that must be completed for each asset over the course of the year. It may be used to identify workload peaks and dips, indicating where load balancing, overtime, and/or part-time assistance is required. It also acts as the foundation for creating and issuing planned repair orders, as well as creating the maintenance budget.
After all work orders have been published and the hours have been allocated, the subtotals for each period for each worker are computed. This procedure is repeated for work orders to be completed by other workers, and it is extended to all capital assets in order to generate the yearly workload profile for each worker.
Balancing Work Load
Balancing the workload may decrease the severe demands of staff and increase workload, which will allow for better use of human resources, less administrative work on paper, and higher efficiency.
To balance the workload,
- Transfer part of the work sooner or later in the peak period(s) to other weeks. If in some weeks demand is even higher than the usual shift hours available, overtime might make up for this gap.
- Assign part-time staff during busy times; or
- Allocate additional work or emergency work to the employee in the period in which the employee is not involved.
Working orders give information on which maintenance is required, what, whenever, how long, and by whom. Inventory (physical) data and task statement orders are created from work orders. For the same frequency of labor and for the same asset, each working order includes tasks. For instance, a work order may include chores to maintain a school weekly boiler. Another work order could include various tasks to maintain the same asset on a monthly basis.
The following are general principles for creating a work order.
- Examine the inventory data and typical work descriptions for any asset on reserve, such as a First Nations Day Care Centre, to determine the tasks suited for that specific asset.
- On a blank work order, write the asset name, maintenance activity number, work order number, and so on. Fill in the required tasks (i.e., Work To Be Performed) on the work order using the job description or the manufacturer’s operation and maintenance handbook as a reference (alter as needed to fit individual scenarios).
- Calculate or estimate the time required to accomplish each job and put the total time for all tasks in the “scheduled time” section. The workforce need for planning and scheduling people resources is determined by the sum of work order scheduled timeframes for all assets in a reserve.
Time studies are used to develop time standards for normal and preventative maintenance operations, which are accessible in reference books.
If time data for a particular job is missing, it might be approximated using similar prior experience. This is especially true for work orders that are emergency or reactive in nature. When the work is done, the actual time spent should be compared to the projected time to assess the accuracy of the estimate or to gauge the maintenance team’s productivity.
A maintenance budget is a cost forecast based on the expenses of personnel, equipment, materials, and other things (such as contracts) needed to complete all of the work outlined in the Work Schedule.
After calculating the expenses for one work order, the procedure is repeated for the other work orders to get the overall cost to maintain the asset.
The maintenance supervisor is in charge of comparing actual spending to the budget for the year. He or she is also in charge of its yearly update, which includes anticipated labor rates, material and service contract prices.
The revised budget would be used to calculate the expenses of operating and maintaining the First Nation’s physical assets.
The Annual Maintenance Budget – Summary summarizes the asset’s total work hours, labor cost, equipment cost, and material cost. All overhead expenditures, utility charges, and maintenance management supervision costs are also recorded at this stage. Simply write a comparable description for each item in the community and add up the totals for each asset in the community to find the total maintenance budget for a First Nation.
Management of Maintenance
Setting up an effective maintenance management system takes a significant amount of effort. However, once in place, the majority of the data and computations stay consistent from year to year. Only when there is an addition or deletion to the inventory, or when cost increases and estimations need to be revised, are changes necessary. In these situations, the relevant work orders and schedules must be amended, as well as the personnel, equipment, material, and contract expenses for the next year. In the commercial industry, there are several computerized maintenance management systems available to aid in successfully managing the maintenance of on-reserve equipment.
The maintenance supervisor or manager must also keep track of work progress on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, depending on the nature of the problem and the possible impact of a service outage on the community. He or she must not wait until the end of the fiscal year to examine the budget, since it will be too late to take remedial action if necessary. Exception reporting should be used to identify any substantial variations in labor hours, work order prices, or overall maintenance cost for a specific asset. The supervisor should investigate the reason for the variation and, if possible, devise alternate solutions or measures to save time and money.